Das ist der Spielbericht zur Begegnung England gegen Deutschland am im Wettbewerb Weltmeisterschaft Deutschland trifft im WM-Achtelfinale auf England. Ein Klassiker, der die Fans schon in der Vergangenheit elektrisierte. Die Bilanz in 31 Spielen aus. Spielschema der Begegnung zwischen England und Deutschland () Länderspiel, /18, Saison am Freitag, November , Uhr, Wembley.
Deutschland Englanf VideoFußball Länderspiel Deutschland - England 26.03.16 komplett HD Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility Beste Spielothek in Bermersheim finden the international community. There were several friendly games played in the s and s, with wins for both nations, but the next competitive match—a second round group game at the FIFA World Cup —ended in a disappointing 0—0 draw. Retrieved 4 July Conversely, summer can see periods of very tricks to blackjack in the casino temperatures for a week or two. England national football team. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. However, neither the referee Jorge Larrionda nor the linesman saw it pass over the line. Like the Digibet casino Cup, the tournament was being held in England, Beste Spielothek in Kottmannsweiler finden the semi-final was played at Wembley Stadium. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin KippenbergerGerhard RichterSigmar Polkeand Neo Rauch. Retrieved 14 September
This was and still is regarded by many as the most important match ever played between the two teams, and it was also the first time they had ever met in a competitive game, as opposed to the friendly matches they had played before.
It was also a highly eventful and in some respects controversial game, which created [ citation needed ] the modern rivalry between the teams. England led 2—1 until the very end of normal time, when a German goal levelled the scores and took the match into extra time.
In the first period of extra time, England striker Geoff Hurst had a shot on goal which bounced down from the crossbar and then out of the goal, before being cleared away by the German defenders.
After consulting with a linesman , Tofiq Bahramov , the referee awarded a goal to England. Bahramov, from the USSR , became famous and celebrated in English popular culture as "the Russian linesman", although he was actually from Azerbaijan.
When England played the Azerbaijan national team in a World Cup qualifier in October —in a stadium named after Bahramov—many England fans travelling to the game asked to be shown the grave of the official, who had died in , so that they could place flowers on it, and before the game a ceremony honouring him was attended by Hurst and other footballing celebrities.
Germany, however, did not believe that the ball had crossed the line, with commentators such as Robert Becker of Kicker magazine accusing the linesman of bias because the German team had eliminated the USSR in the semi-final.
England, however, scored another controversial goal at the end of extra time, winning 4—2. This goal came after fans began to spill onto the field, thinking the game was over, which should have stopped play.
The goal, a third for Hurst making him the only man ever to score a hat-trick in a World Cup final , was described by BBC Television commentator Kenneth Wolstenholme in a now-famous piece of commentary, " They think it's all over The expression has become a celebrated part of English popular culture, indelibly linked with the game in the minds of the English public.
The final's influence on the culture surrounding the England team would not end there, however. Despite playing on their home soil, England wore their away kit of red shirts, white shorts and red socks, and since then England fans have had a special affinity for their team's away kit, with retro shirts selling well in recent years.
The game is often held as having been the height of English sporting achievement, but it also created some less favourable legacies; a common chant among England supporters at Germany games is " Two World Wars and One World Cup " to the tune of " Camptown Races ".
Two years after the World Cup, on 1 June , the two teams met again in another friendly match, this time in West Germany, in which the Germans won their first victory over an English team, 38 years after they had first played.
But that will not prevent the Germans from doing it. Their celebrations will not be inhibited by the knowledge that today's losers were almost a reserve team, and even the agonies of boredom they shared with us will now seem worthwhile.
They have beaten England, and that is enough. Far more noted and remembered, however, was the next competitive meeting between the two teams, in the quarter-finals of the FIFA World Cup in Mexico.
England were 2—0 up, but Beckenbauer and Uwe Seeler equalised at 2—2 in the second half. In extra time, Geoff Hurst had a goal mysteriously ruled out  and then Gerd Müller scored in extra time to win 3—2.
England had been weakened by losing their goalkeeper Gordon Banks to illness, and also substituted Bobby Charlton , one of their leading players, while the Germans were in the midst of their comeback.
As McIlvanney put it when reflecting on the loss five days later, "Sir Alf Ramsey's team are out because the best goalkeeper most people have ever seen turned sick, and one who is only slightly less gifted was overwhelmed by the suddenness of his promotion.
In sport disaster often feeds upon itself but this was a sickeningly gluttonous example. The result was psychologically damaging for English morale—as The Guardian newspaper described in a feature: This marked the start of two decades of German footballing dominance and England's decline.
Two years later the teams met once more, in the quarter-finals of the European Championship , which were at the time held on a home-and-away basis.
England lost 3—1 at Wembley on 29 April in the home leg, and on 13 May could only draw 0—0 in West Germany, being knocked out of the competition.
Said The Observer in It was a conspiracy of fate more than a footballing defeat. In , there were no excuses at all. West Germany did not just knock England out of the European Championships, they came to Wembley and comprehensively outclassed England.
There were several friendly games played in the s and s, with wins for both nations, but the next competitive match—a second round group game at the FIFA World Cup —ended in a disappointing 0—0 draw.
England were later eliminated from that competition after drawing Spain , while Germany reached the final. However, when the teams next met competitively, at the FIFA World Cup , it was a rather more dramatic and eventful clash in the semi-finals, the first time England had reached that far in the competition since their win in In summer , the process of German reunification had advanced far, with the Deutsche Mark being introduced in the East two days before the semifinals on 3 July.
The England team had started the event poorly and had not been expected to reach that stage of the competition, but in the game they could match the stronger German team, managed by Franz Beckenbauer.
The Germans took the lead in the 59th minute when a free-kick from Andreas Brehme deflected off Paul Parker and over goalkeeper Peter Shilton.
Gary Lineker equalised in the 80th minute, and then David Platt had a goal ruled out in extra time. The result was thus decided by a penalty shoot-out —the England team's first—which West Germany won 4—3 after misses from Stuart Pearce and Chris Waddle.
West Germany went on to beat Argentina in the final. The match stayed heavily in the English popular consciousness — not simply for the football and the dramatic manner of the defeat, but also for the reaction of star player Paul Gascoigne to receiving a yellow card.
His second of the tournament, his realisation that this would see him suspended for the final should England make it prompted him to burst into tears on the pitch.
Said The Observer in , "There are half a dozen images that define this decade of change, which help to show why football widened its appeal.
First, and most important, is the sight of Paul Gascoigne crying into his England shirt after being booked in the World Cup semi-final against West Germany.
Unaggressive and emotional, a billboard image that helped to start an apparently unstoppable surge in popularity for the national team.
Despite this rehabilitation of the image of football aided by the English national team's success in the tournament, the narrow defeat by Germany helped to increase the antipathy felt towards the German team and the German nation in general.
Mark Perryman wrote in To my mind it is the fact that we so nearly did, then lost in the penalty shoot-out that explains the past 16 years of an increasingly bitter rivalry.
Germany was reunited in October For the DFB team, few things changed apart from players previously capped for East Germany becoming eligible for the united German team.
This made little difference to the tone and emotion of the rivalry. England's first match against the unified Germany since was a friendly in at Wembley, which the Germans won 1—0.
Five years later, at the European Championships , England played a unified German team for the first time in a competitive fixture, when they met in the semi-finals.
Like the World Cup, the tournament was being held in England, and the semi-final was played at Wembley Stadium. England's fans and team were confident, particularly after wins in the group stage over Scotland 2—0 and the Netherlands 4—1 and their first ever penalty shoot-out victory, over Spain , in the quarter-finals.
So vivid were the memories of for England fans that a media clamour ensued for England to wear red jerseys, instead of the unfamiliar-looking grey away kit that had been launched earlier that year as England had not submitted details of any red kit to UEFA before the tournament, this was never going to be permitted, and England did wear grey.
The build-up to the game was soured, however, by headlines in English tabloid newspapers which were regarded by many as overly nationalistic, and even racist in tone, as they had also been before the previous match against Spain.
Particularly controversial was the Daily Mirror ' s headline "Achtung! For You Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over", accompanied by a mock article aping a report of the declaration of war between the two nations in The editor of the paper, Piers Morgan , subsequently apologised for the headline, particularly as it was at least partially blamed for violence following England's defeat, including a riot in Trafalgar Square.
England took the lead in only the third minute, through tournament top scorer Alan Shearer , but in the 16th minute Stefan Kuntz equalised, and despite many close shots and a disallowed goal from the Germans, the score remained level at 1—1 until the end of extra time.
The match was settled by another penalty shoot-out, as in , and although this time all five of England's initial penalty-takers were successful, so were all five German players.
The shoot-out carried on to "sudden death" kicks, with Gareth Southgate missing for England and Andreas Möller scoring for Germany to put the hosts out.
As in , Germany went on to win the tournament. England and Germany were drawn to meet each other in the first round group stage of the European Championship , held jointly by Belgium and the Netherlands, with the England—Germany game taking place in Charleroi in Belgium.
Before the game, played on 17 June , there were violent incidents involving England fans in the town centre, although these were mostly brief and there were no violent confrontations with German fans.
Nonetheless, reporting of the violence did to a degree overshadow the match result in some media coverage. The match itself was a scrappy affair that lacked the drama of many of the previous encounters, with England sneaking a 1—0 win thanks to a second-half header by striker Alan Shearer.
There was enthusiastic celebration of this result in England, particularly as this was the first time that England had won a competitive match against Germany since the World Cup final.
The German reaction was more pessimistic. Rounding up the German media coverage, The Guardian reported: Is it all over?
In the event, both England and Germany lost their final group matches and both were knocked out in the first round, finishing third and fourth respectively in their group, which was the worst German result in a tournament since the World Cup , while England had already experienced that multiple times in the two previous decades.
England's home match against Germany was played on Saturday 7 October , and was significant as it was the last international fixture ever to be played at the old Wembley Stadium, before it was demolished and rebuilt.
England lost 1—0 to a German free kick scored by Dietmar Hamann. Half-time neared, England were a goal down and a sizeable section of the crowd sullied the ever-dampening occasion.
The result prompted the immediate resignation of England manager Kevin Keegan , and by the time the return match was played at the Olympic Stadium in Munich on 1 September , England were now managed by their first ever foreign coach, Sven-Göran Eriksson.
Expectations on the English side were low, but they surprisingly won the game 5—1 with a hat-trick from striker Michael Owen , and eventually qualified for the World Cup as the winners of their group.
During the game the father of German coach Rudi Völler suffered a heart attack inside the stadium, but was successfully resuscitated.
Some Germans were shocked by the scale of the defeat, with former striker Karl-Heinz Rummenigge stating that "I have never seen such a terrible defeat This is a new Waterloo for us.
England only reached the quarter-finals. Both teams were defeated by the competition winners, Brazil. England and Germany next played on 22 August , in a friendly at the newly-rebuilt Wembley Stadium.
England surprisingly lost the match 2—1, their first defeat at the new Wembley, as Germany, following the unexpectedly successful World Cup, was still rebuilding the national team with a new generation and many unexperienced players.
Germany won the match 4—1, knocking England out and advancing into the quarter-finals. This was the greatest defeat England ever suffered in their World Cup history.
In the 38th minute, a shot by Frank Lampard controversially bounced off the crossbar well into the goal and back out again with Germany leading only 2—1.
However, neither the referee Jorge Larrionda nor the linesman saw it pass over the line. In Germany it was perceived as at least a slight revenge for the goal of , which is usually considered unjust in Germany.
The German women's league is considered one of the strongest in the world, until the end of the —14 season out of a possible 13 Champions League titles, German clubs have won eight.
By contrast, Arsenal are the only English side to have won the competition, doing so in The German women's team is more popular in Germany than the English women's team is in England.
Germany matches are televised on national television and attract millions of viewers. The World Cup quarterfinal between Germany and Japan attracted over 17 million viewers,  while England women's matches struggle to even make it into television schedules.
England's group games in the World Cup were watched by up to four million viewers on German television, but less than a million on BBC , which means even with no German involvement, England games are at this point more popular in Germany than in the country the England team actually represents.
England has not won a major title, their best result being Euro runners up in women's Euro and in Euro Meanwhile, Germany's women have won two World Cups, and ,  and a total of eight European Championships in the years of , , , , , , and Together with the three Euro wins and the four World Cup wins of the men's team, Germany counts 17 major tournament titles, while England has one major tournament title so far.
Since World War II , Britain has considered itself a rival to Germany in many areas, such as automobile production , naval forces , trade and economy  —this rivalry has also permeated into football.
English football fans often deem Germany to be their traditional football rival and care more about this rivalry than those with other countries, such as Scotland or Argentina.
In the run-up to any football match against Germany, many English tabloids publish articles that contain references to the Second World War, such as calling their opposition derogatory terms such as " krauts " or " hun ".
England's defeat of Germany in the World Cup has been often voted by the English as their greatest ever sporting moment,  and the 5—1 victory in has also regularly placed highly.
As far back as the s, the footballing rivalry between England and Germany has been considered mainly an English phenomenon; this has been observed by several commentators of both English and German origin.
In June , British comedian Stephen Fry stated on the BBC show QI that, unlike the English, German football fans do not care about their team's loss at the World Cup final and may not even remember that they had made it that far.
Instead, German fans consider their rivalry with the Netherlands to be their traditional footballing rivalry and care more about the matches against them, such as the FIFA World Cup final.
Following their 5—1 loss in , many German fans were not particularly concerned, instead revelling in the Netherlands ' defeat by the Republic of Ireland the same day.
Some sang directly after the loss to England: In , during the lead-up to World Cup match, journalist Marina Hyde remarked in The Guardian that the rivalry between the England and Germany football teams was "quite obviously an illusion, existing only in the minds of those wishful to the point of insanity — which is to say, the English".
Beck described Germany's ambivalence to the rivalry, saying that "as far as the Germans are concerned, Sunday's game is nothing more than another sporting contest".
However, it would of course also be false to say that there is no rivalry at all between Germany and England; for one thing, the very fact that the English perceive it to be such cannot go unnoticed, for another, there is the long-standing quarrel about the " Wembley goal " only somewhat silenced since a clear goal was not awarded to the English in England matches, even friendlies, are always considered highly important sporting events though of course, the tradition and, usually, the quality of both the teams may account for most of that , going so far that a popular radioplay series mocks people in love as "looking deep into each other's eyes even if a Germany vs.
England match is on TV". Also, different flags were applied:. England played four Friendly matches against the East Germany national football team which was fielded by the DFV in the German Democratic Republic which existed from to As well as the rivalry between the national sides, English and German club teams have also met on numerous occasions in the various European club competitions.
Having recently missed out on the Bundesliga title to their rivals Borussia Dortmund , Bayern Munich suffered defeat at the Allianz Arena ; a game dubbed "Finale dahoam" Bavarian for "final at home" as it marked the second time that any team played the tournament's final at their home ground.
The game  ended as a 1—1 draw after added extra time aet before being decided 4—3 on penalties. Bayern Munich seemed like the more dominant of the two sides throughout, but a criticised   Chelsea defence "parked the bus" , preventing many chances which eventually lead to their first Champions League win.
Perhaps the most noteworthy encounter was the UEFA Champions League Final between Manchester United and Bayern Munich, during which the English club were trailing 1—0 until injury time, then scoring two goals to win 2—1.
This result was celebrated by many in England who were not United fans as being another English victory over Germany. Leeds would eventually eliminate a German team VfB Stuttgart in unexpected and bizarre circumstances.
After the Germans had qualified, in the first round of the —93 competition, on the away goals rule, the return leg was awarded by UEFA 3—0 to Leeds United because Stuttgart fielded an extra foreigner, thus infringing the European competition rules that were in place at the time.
A replay was ordered as the aggregate stood at 3—3. Leeds won the replay at Barcelona 's Camp Nou 2—1. In , a young and depleted Leeds United side, managed by David O'Leary , eliminated Munich from the Champions League beating them home and away in the preliminary round before reaching the semi-final.
These were against the likes of Borussia Mönchengladbach , 1. Liverpool's win against Borussia Mönchengladbach in Rome stands out for one special reason.
It started a sequence of six consecutive English European Cup victories each time involving the elimination of a German club in the latter stages.
The English hold the upper hand in club football encounters, although there were notable German wins such as Bayern's revenge over Manchester United F.
Both English sides exacted revenge over Leverkusen in subsequent Champions League encounters. Borussia Dortmund beat Manchester United 1—0 both home and away in the semifinal of the —97 UEFA Champions League which they won, United having been guilty of squandering numerous chances in both legs, especially the return leg at Old Trafford.
English club victories were often celebrated in a manner which evoked memories of the War. The outspoken Brian Clough is on record boasting that he never lost to a German side and that he took satisfaction from this for what the Germans had done to his father during the war.
Clough memorably led Nottingham Forest to a 1—0 win in Cologne following a spectacular 3—3 draw at the City Ground in the semifinal en route to Forest winning their first European Cup.
Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary.
As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.
Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad  and maintains relations with more than countries. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.
The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.
The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In , Chancellor Gerhard Schröder 's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.
As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.
In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.
But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.
As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.
Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.
In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption,  and a high level of innovation.
Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.
Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.
Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,  and is the fourth largest by production.
Of the world's largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in , the Fortune Global , 28 are headquartered in Germany. Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model.
More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions. The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.
Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.
Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant. Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy.
Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.
Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.
The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world,  with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.
Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.
Germany's most-visited landmarks include e. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.
With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.
The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.
Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad. After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.
The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler , followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.
In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.
Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.
As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.
Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust.
Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.
It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.
Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.
According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.
Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population  are Buddhism with , adherents, Judaism with , adherents, and Hinduism with some , adherents.
All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.
To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.
German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.
Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.
It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.
Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.
Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.
It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.
However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.
Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.
In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s,  Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.
Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.
A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.
Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" ,  because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.
Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.
In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.
Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.
During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.
Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.
German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.
German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.
Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.
Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne.
Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.
Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.
Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.
The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.
When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.
Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.
Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.
Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century.
German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.
German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.
Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.
German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.
After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.
One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report. Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films.
The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.
German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.
Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.
German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.
Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions ,  the national alcoholic drink is beer.
The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.
Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.
With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.
Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.
Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].
The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.
He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.
Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.
Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.
Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.
For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe.
Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.
Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.
Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.
German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.
Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.
There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.
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